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Why Latency Matters
Latency is the most critical performance factor in a system because latency directly affects system data exchange time
Latency means lost time; time that could have been spent more productively producing computational results, but it is instead spent waiting for the data
 Latency is the “application stealth tax”, silently extending the elapsed times of individual computational tasks and processes, which then take longer to execute
A3Cube Hybrid Topology Fabric is a “direct” network, therefore avoiding the need for external top-of-rack switches
It scales to a large number of nodes
It reduces the number of optical links required for a given global bandwidth

It is based on many small computing islands connected together using the shortest cabling possible and then connecting these islands in an ultra short diameter network
Intra-Island Connection
A high-radix router is partitioned into 2/3 classes of links.
These classes are used to create two main “network-object”:

 a) Intra-group (Computing-Island) links (or local links)
 b) Inter-group links (or global links)

The Inter-group links can be divided into first level and second level.
The group is a collection of computing nodes directly connected to the router that creates what we call “Computing Islands
Cable Connections

Low-cost electrical links are used to connect the NICs in each PE to their local router and the routers in a group
The maximum group size is governed by the partitioning of the Routers
The first level of group normally uses copper cables, the second level in most cases uses optical cables.
Inter-Islands Connection
Each router provides both “intra-group” (Computing-Island) links that connect it to other computing nodes in its group and “inter-group” links (also known as global links) that connect it to other groups. The router in a group pools its inter-group links, enabling each group to be directly connected to all the other groups.
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